alcohol phenol and ethers
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Alcohol phenol and ethers

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Acetone is a by-product in the reaction Physical Properties Boiling Point: Increases with increase in the number of C atoms due to the increase in Van der Waals forces Decreases with an increase in branching due to the decrease in surface area and Van der Waals forces Boiling point is more compared to other compounds like alkanes, ethers, haloalkanes, etc. They form oxonium ion after protonation by strong acids Chemical Reactions 1.

Reactions where alcohol reacts as a Nucleophile O-H bond cleavage : a. Esterification: Alcohols react with carboxylic acids, acid anhydrides and acid chlorides to form esters 1. Reactions where phenol reacts as a Nucleophile O-H bond cleavage : a. Phenol reacts with metal or aq NaOH to form sodium phenoxide b. There is no O-H bond in ethers 2.

Reactions where alcohol reacts as an Electrophile C-O bond cleavage : a. Reaction with HX to form alkyl halides. Reaction with PX3 to form alkyl halides c. Undergo dehydration to form alkene in the presence of protic acid, e. Oxidation or Dehydrogenation reaction to form aldehydes and ketones Primary alcohols form aldehydes Strong oxidising agents KMnO4 , form carboxylic acid directly CrO3 and PCC pyrimidine chlorochromate are used to get aldehydes Secondary alcohols form ketones on oxidation by CrO3 Tertiary alcohols do not undergo oxidation.

On treating with KMnO4 at a higher temp, dissociation of C-C bond takes place resulting in a mixture of carboxylic acids with fewer carbon atoms e. Alcohols also undergo dehydrogenation when heated with Cu at K. Chemical Properties of Alcohol Oxidation of Alcohol Aldehydes and ketones are generated when alcohols are oxidized in the presence of an oxidizing agent, and these can then be further oxidized to form carboxylic acids.

Dehydration of Alcohol Alcohol dehydrates loses a molecule of water when exposed to protic acids, resulting in alkenes. Catalytic Reduction of Butanal Butanol is generated when butanal is dissolved. This is caused by a hydrogenation process. The hydrogens are added to the carbon-oxygen double bond, which is then changed to a carbon-oxygen single bond, resulting in the carboxyl oxygen group being transformed into a hydroxyl group.

A reduction process, also known as catalytic hydrogenation, is the addition of hydrogen to a carbon-carbon double bond to generate an alkane. The hydrogenation of a double bond is advantageous thermodynamically because it yields a more stable lower energy product.

Preparation of Alcohol There are several methods for the preparation of alcohol, some of these methods are given below: Hydrolysis of Halides: When alkyl halide is boiled with an aqueous solution of an alkali hydroxide, they form alcohol due to the nucleophilic substitution mechanism. Under this reaction, primary and secondary alcohols are formed. Hydroboration of Alkenes: Under this reaction, an alkene is treated with diborane to form alkyl boranes, further alkyl boranes on oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide to give alcohol as a final product.

Phenols Phenols are chemical compounds that contain a benzene ring as well as a hydroxyl group. Carbolic acids are another name for them. They have special physical and chemical features due to the presence of a hydroxyl group. It is an aromatic compound. It consists of phenyl groups attached to each other. Phenol is crystalline in nature having white color. Physical and Chemical Properties of Phenol Boiling Point of Phenols Phenols have higher boiling points than other hydrocarbons with identical molecular weights.

The primary explanation for this is the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl groups of phenol molecules. In general, as the number of carbon atoms increases, the boiling point of phenols rises. Solubility of Phenols The hydroxyl group determines phenol's water solubility. The development of intermolecular hydrogen bonds in phenol is due to the hydroxyl group. As a result, hydrogen bonds develop between water and phenol molecules, making phenol water-soluble.

Acidity of Phenols When phenols combine with active metals like salt or potassium, they produce phenoxide. The acidic character of phenols is indicated by these reactions. The electron-withdrawing group in phenol is the sp2 hybridized carbon of the benzene ring linked directly to the hydroxyl group.

As a result, the electron density of oxygen is reduced. Phenoxide ions are more stable than alkoxide ions due to the delocalization of the negative charge in the benzene ring. As a result, we might conclude that phenols are acidic in comparison to alcohol. Chirality of Phenols Catechin, for example, is a phenol containing chirality inside its molecules. The lack of planar and axial symmetry in the phenol molecule accounts for this chirality. Preparation of Phenol From Haloarenes Haloarenes include chemicals like chlorobenzene.

The monosubstitution of a benzene ring yields chlorobenzene. We get sodium phenoxide when chlorobenzene reacts with sodium hydroxide at K and atm. Finally, phenols are produced when sodium phenoxide is acidified. From Benzene Sulphonic Acid By reacting benzene with oleum, we can make benzene sulphonic.

The resulting benzene sulphonic acid is treated with molten sodium hydroxide at a high temperature. Sodium phenoxide is formed as a result of this mechanism. This reaction is the very first commercial step of phenol synthesis. In this process, sodium benzene sulphonate is fused with sodium hydroxide to form sodium phenoxide, which further undergoes acidification to yield phenol. In nature, these diazonium salts are quite reactive. When heated with water, these diazonium salts hydrolyze to phenols.

We can make phenols by treating diazonium ions with dilute acids. When a diazonium salts solution is treated with steam distilled or is added to boiling dil. H2SO4, it forms phenol as a final product. From Cumene Cumene is an organic chemical made by alkylating benzene with propylene in the Friedel-Crafts reaction. Cumene hydroperoxide is formed when cumene isopropylbenzene is oxidized in the presence of air. Ethers They belong to organic compounds that have an oxygen atom attached to two same or different alkyl or aryl groups.

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Naming Alcohols - IUPAC Nomenclature

Chapter 3 Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers 2 3 Alcohols 4 The Hydroxy (—OH) Functional Group •The hydroxyl group (—OH) is found in the alcohol and phenol functional groups. (Note: . Jun 07,  · Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Class 12 Notes Chemistry Chapter 11 1. Alcohols and phenols may be classified as monohydric, dihydric, trihydric or polyhydric according to . Mar 28,  · Organic substances are divided into three categories: alcohol, phenol, and ether. These compounds have a wide range of industrial and home uses. Alcohol is formed when .